By the end of 2030, 60% of the world will be urbanised.
The search for employment, care and services drives populations to rely on the main urban centres, which gradually grow in size, creating an increasingly thick and dense network (in 1950 less than 30% of the total population lived in cities). The record in this special type of growth goes to Lagos, in Nigeria. Known also as Africa’s big apple, in 1970 it had 2 million inhabitants, while today it has already gone considerably above 16 million: a constant growth of 85 people per hour. Incredible, isn’t it? And Lagos is not alone, other Asian megalopolises come near to this record. Delhi (India) grows at a constant rate of 79 people per hour.
Solar energy also after sunset
Producing energy thanks to the sun’s rays, also when the sun has already hidden beyond the horizon.
It seems like a paradox, but, in fact, it is the technology now becoming operational in the Nevada desert. In Tonopah to be precise. Crescent Dunes is the name of this futuristic electricity power station, owned by Solar Reserve, which, thanks to 17,000 special mirror panels, concentrates sun rays toward a 165 m high tower. The heat generated raises the molten salts vapour tank temperature to more than 1,000°F, able to make the vapour turbines turn constantly, which in turn are able to move the generators 24/7. The major difference compared to traditional photovoltaic systems is that with the CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) System solar energy can be harnessed also after sunset.
Sight does not go to sleep
Unstoppable activity, before our eyes.
Shut your eyes and try to image an endless effort, like a marathon. Are you not already tired? It might be useful to know that there is someone who makes a similar effort every day, 24 hours a day: indeed, your eyes. Our “high-definition video cameras” burn energy constantly to answer the most varied needs, such as bringing into focus. This efficiency is guaranteed by extra-ocular muscles (also termed extrinsic): 6 muscular bundles, of which 4 straight (superior, inferior, medial and lateral) and two oblique (superior and inferior). And during the night it is the same story, indeed our eyes continue their ceaseless activity also during sleep: the REM (rapid eye movement) phase, with its oscillatory, rhythmical and involuntary movements of the eyeballs. According to a study published in the “Brain” journal, the explanation is simple: the eye “watches” the dreams’ scenes and follows them as if they were real.
Surviving without sleep for an entire season
In the humid areas of the United States of America and Canada, there lives a tireless amphibian: the Bullfrog.
We are not referring to great athletic performances, far from it: nature’s really curious gift lies in its circadian rhythm. Indeed, biologists noticed that the Bullfrog does not need to fall into a deep sleep (except during hibernation, scheduled for the most extreme cold spells), but manages to keep its main sensory centres active without stopping. Even for months. You might know it also as the Ox Frog, due to its sound that is similar to the lowing of cows, but this is another story.
Croma is designed to work in a truly continuous mode. Product is flowing continuously throughout the modules, with no steps. The breakthrough of Croma lies in the product movement. Both the design of the drum and the position and shape of the mixing baffles provide motion to the minimum unit of product, thus keeping its flowing strictly under control. Start and stop procedures are optimized to maximize Overall Equipment Effectiveness.
Spray guns are continuously monitored to ensure a regular coating rate, a homogeneous film distribution on the cores surface and prevent clogging of the guns.
Tablets flow rate monitoring ensures constant feeding of the coater and maintains the hold up of the tablets in each module at the steady state.
Temperature of the cores along the module is controlled to be uniform as it indicates a good air flow and optimal coating process.
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